ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

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REQUIRED text for this course is Abnormal Psychology, An Integrative Approach, 7th edition by Barlow and Durand, ISBN: 978-1285755618.

Create a Case Study: Using the clinical case studies in the text for examples, choose a disorder discussed. For example, you might choose Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, where you will need to create a character for your own Case Study who meets the DSM-5 criteria for the disorder, how he or she manifests them, what his or her background is, what causes might contribute to the disorder, and what appropriate treatment might be. An interesting choice would also be one of the Personality Disorders. You may need to research beyond the text for appropriate interventions. You may compose a written case study of at least 7 pages
I. Description of your topic, problem, or research findings. (9 pts.)
a. Provided a review of the relevant literature
b. Described the focus of each section of the assignment, and if applicable, addressed comparisons among multiple approaches.
c. Identified key aspects of the topic, problem, or research findings.

II. Critique of your findings (9 pts.)
a. Identified any “gaps” present in the topic, problem, or research findings and how they affect your overall theme.
b. Justified the importance of each section of the paper or project–i.e., how does it contribute to knowledge gained from this assignment?
c. Assessed each section’s usefulness in explaining your research question and assertions.

III. Organization & other logistics (7 pts.)
a. The paper or project was of an appropriate length to explain and analyze your focus and theme.
b. The paper or project was well written or presented, and clearly organized (introduction, body, conclusion)
c. The paper or project advanced a clear central thesis
d. The paper or project was professionally presented and free of typographical, spelling, grammatical and/or verbal errors.
e. The paper or project highlighted aspects of this study in a way that complemented class discussions & readings

My last assingment i did you might beable to use.
The Literal Analysis of Psychopathological Approaches towards Explaining Mental Illnesses
Introduction
The psychological theory could not exactly pinpoint causes of mental illnesses, and therefore, experts treat each case independently. There are mainly four approaches of explaining mental and psychological problems those have a certain level of prevalence in different parts of the world. The first technique in this regard finds biological reason those may underlay a mental problem, and the physicians cure the issue as a normal physiological phenomenon. Second method of psychopathological analysis involves studying behavior of a person, and the theory suggests that persons are in control of their actions, and lack of nurture plays a significant role in terms of making an individual to suffer from a mental disorder. The third approach is referred to as psychodynamic technique that identifies different factors of one’s personality, and those attributes interact with each other in order to determine abnormal behavior. Finally, the cognitive approach considers the social and economic atmosphere of a person as a determinant of dysfunctional behavior (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Following is the detailed explanation of each approach that psychopathology applies in order to study abnormal behaviors; –
Biological Approach
The biological approach dictates that one’s compromised mental state could be a result of biological factors, and this technique argues that one’s familial tree could be carrying a certain psychological condition. The prevalent psychological disorder could manifest in later generations. However, there is no scientific proof linking biological factors to presence of mental disorders. The theoretical framework establishes that there are certain physiological factors contributing towards making a person mentally ill. The higher levels of serotonin are found to be responsible for causing anxiety, and lower levels of the chemical could develop depression. The psychologists may prescribe drugs and medicines in order to counteract chemical imbalance in patients. A small body of research suggests that viral infections could contribute towards prevalence mental disorders, but there are proper treatments present to counter the resultant conditions. The physical illness can be accompanied by marginal mental disorder such as anxiety and depression. The nursing specialists are using motivational methods in order to uplift spirits of the suffering in order to drive down anxious feelings and hopelessness (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Behavioral Approach
The behavioral approach urges the mentalists to believe the person and his or her socioeconomic condition as leading causes of the abnormal behavior. The theory emphasized on social setup encompassing an individual as a variable that could serve as a masterful cause of mental disorder. Both internal reasoning of a person and his or her relevant external atmosphere interact with each other to determine the behavior of the person. A positive minded person would not react to an unconstructive development in a negative sense. A disappointed person would respond with malicious intend in the direction life’s challenges, and therefore, he or she may exhibit negative behaviors towards the society. The behavioral technique of psychopathological analysis considers humans as entities who influence from their external social setup and internal cognitive processes (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
The Psychodynamic Approach
The psychodynamic approach establishes that a person would exhibit negative and diminished attitudes if he or she is experiencing conflicts amongst different aspects of his or her internal personality. There are four aspects to one’s personality those determine behaviors over a specific timeframe of life (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Id
Id has a definition of a construct that drives one in the direction of making thoughtless and impulsive decisions, and this factor remains a leading factor with reference to establishing behavior of a person during early years of life (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Ego
Ego sets in during twelve to fifteen years of age, and one initiates to take rational decisions. However, a child in this age is highly subjected to external environment, and parents take major decisions during this phase of an individual’s life. The child lacks the cognitive strength to differentiate between right and wrong (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Superego
Superego is a final developmental stage that blesses oneself with the differentiable ability that could aid one in the process of identifying right and wrong. However, one could weigh his or her actions in terms of their results such as breaking traffic rules in order to abet an injured person in reaching to the hospital, and one can use illegal means to survive starvation. The world always does not appear to be painted in white and black, there are grey areas present as well (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Ego Defenses
Ego defenses are not a formal part of one’s personality, and they serve as a set of defensive mechanism those a person applies in order to serve his or her personality’s life. In short, people do not want to change their identity. For instance, a person who might have experienced a trauma in early childhood would respond to similar condition later in life with developing depressive thoughts those might take the form of negative behaviors (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Ego defenses and superego are the real culprits in determining one’s negative behavior. The person’s sense of right or wrong could be distorted due to social environment that one lives in during early childhood, and a mentally disturbed patient could find pleasure in paining others, as he or she was tortured by his or her friends at school or his or her parents did not raise him or her in ideal conditions. The concepts of right and wrong are the basic elements those determine one’s mental condition, and ego defenses motivate oneself to develop arguments in order to protect his or her choices (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Cognitive Approach
This approach takes different mental processes into account before determining one’s behavior, and following are the mental developments those occur when an individual approaches certain decisions (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Cognitive Structures
This dimension governs the relational realities of humans, and how they relate to the outside world. All of us, occasionally relate feelings and emotions with material objects, but overstressing in this regard could result in a mental disorder (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Cognitive Content
This subarea of the construct argues about prevalence of negative or positive thoughts those one experiences during life, and involved professional has to assess the patient’s propensity to act on constructive thoughts in order to determine his or her behavioral outcome.
Cognitive Processes
This subtype deals with person’s habits those he or she uses in order to take decisions, and most importantly, the question is whether the patient chooses to demonstrate rational or irrational attitudes (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
. Cognitive Products
Finally, this branch of theory establishes the nature of behavioral outcomes, and the professional has to intervene in order to change the thinking pattern of the patient because if the sick acts on his or her negative thoughts then, he would become a criminal, and therefore, he or she would fall into the social domain of law enforcement (Barlow & Durand, 2014).
Conclusion
This paper has analyzed numerous theories those governed psychological analysis over different times, and the best explanation for mental is provided by cognitive approach because the featured technique takes both external and internal factors before assessing one’s mental condition. The supportive argument was supplemented by behavioral theory, but the older version could not produce specific arguments, but the shortcomings were fulfilled by a later and improved episode that built its underpinnings on the basis of a neglected theoretical framework. Prior to large scale implementation of modern clinical understanding, biological approach was determining practice of psychology. Now cognitive attitudes are receiving very significant degree of attention in the research relevant to psychological disorders. Additionally, a psychologist could use different approaches in order to assess the condition of the person, and the patient’s responsiveness would determine the final technique that the professional will apply.
References
Barlow, D. H., & Durand, V. M. (2014). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach 7th edition. London: Wadsworth Publishing.


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