Assignment 5: Scholarly Paper – Strategies for Community Health Promotion | Value 30%
Due Date: Negotiable, however, it is recommended that you work through both Sections I and II, prior to completing work on this assignment.

Purpose

The purpose of this assignment is to provide the student with an opportunity to develop a health promotion program and relate strategies of community planning, implementation and evaluation to the community diagnosis identified in Assignment 2. Please note you are not expected to carry out the health promotion program that you develop.

Choose one of the following to complete this assignment:

Based on the community diagnosis you developed in Assignment 2, (a) develop an outline for a program to meet the identified need, including goals and objectives, and (b) compare and contrast the strengths and limitations of two approaches for influencing community change in the direction of health which would be appropriate in developing the proposed program (e.g., behavioral / lifestyle, socio-environmental approach) and which need to be considered in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the program. Discuss the role of the community health nurse related to each of the approaches and in relation to the planned program.

Or

Based on the community diagnosis you developed in Assignment 2, (a) develop an outline for a program to meet the identified need and (b) develop a proposal for obtaining funding for the program. The proposal should include goals and objectives for the proposed program; a description of the target aggregate/group; rationale for the approach to be utilized (e.g., behavioral / lifestyle, socio-environmental approach); a description of the “players” who will be involved in program planning, implementation and evaluation and their roles: proposed evaluation strategies; and, a budget for the program.

Marking Criteria

All aspects of the assignment as outlined are clearly addressed.

Critical analysis and synthesis of ideas is evident.

Ideas are develop logically and presented in an organized, clear, and concise manner.

Paper will build on course content and will reflect use of resources beyond those included in the course study guide.

APA (6th. ed.) scholarly format – limit of 12 pages (excluding title and reference pages).
Submitting Your Assignment
When you have completed this assignment, send it to your tutor for marking. Always retain a copy of your assignment for your files.
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Then, add a note if needed and click the “Submit for Marking” button to send it to your instructor.
Course Textbooks
Stamler, L. L., & Yiu. L. (Eds.). (2012). Community health nursing: A Canadian perspective (3nd ed.). Toronto: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Vollman, A. R., Anderson, E. T., & McFarlane, J. (2012). Canadian community as partner: Theory and practice in nursing (3nd ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
References
Butterfield, P.G. (2002). Upstream reflections on environmental health: An abbreviated history and framework for action [Electronic version]. ANS, 25(1), 32-50.
College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. (2008, September). Primary health care. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Guidelines/PrimaryHealthCare_Sep2008.pdf
Community Health Nurses Association of Canada. (2011). Community health nursing standards of practice. Retrieved http://www.chnc.ca
Hamilton, N., & Bhatti, T. (1996, February). Population health promotion: An integrated model of population health and health promotion.Retrieved May 31, 2005, from Public Health Agency of Canada Web site: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Jonas, S. (2003). Talking about health and wellness with patients: Integrating health promotion and disease prevention in your practice.Retrieved May 31, 2005 from http://www.americanhealthandhealing.com/Pages/JONASchap102.html
Ontario Health Promotion Resource System. (n.d.). HP-101 Health promotion on-line course. Retrieved July 12, 2005 from
http://www.ohprs.ca/hp101/main.htm
Public Health Agency of Canada. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion: An international conference on health promotion. Retrieved May 03, 2005 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2002). What is the population health approach? Retrieved May 31, 2005 from
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Health status, well-being and satisfaction. Retrieved May 31, 2005 fromhttp://www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/definitions/health.htm
World Health Organization: Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. Retrieved November 19, 2007 fromhttp://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/
Young, L. E., & Wharf Higgins, J. (2008).Concepts of health. In L. L. Stamler & L. Yui (Eds.). Community health nursing: A Canadian perspective (2nd ed.). (pp. 80 – 92). Toronto : Pearson/Prentice Hall.

COURSE CONTENT
Section 1: Concepts Basic to Community Health Nursing
The concepts addressed in Section 1, Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 may represent new material for some learners while being a review for others. Whether new learning or review, it is important to develop or increase one’s understanding of the concepts that form the foundations of community health nursing in order to apply the concepts to community health nursing practice. A quiz, comprising 20% of the overall course composite grade, occurs upon completion of Section 1.
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Learning Outcomes | Focusing | Practicing | Activity 1 | Activity 2 | Activity 3 | Activity 4 | Reflecting | References
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Unit 1: Community Health Nursing
“Key to all community practice is the principle of “doing with” not “to” or “for” the people served”
(Vollman, Anderson, & McFarlane, 2012, p. 3).
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Learning Outcomes
By completing this unit, you will be able to
• discuss the historical underpinnings of community health nursing.
• describe the various roles of the community health nurse in relation to the focus of client.
• identify current health care issues and trends of particular importance to community health nurses.
• discuss the role of professional associations in relation to community health nursing.
• identify the ethical issues particular to community health nursing.
________________________________________
Focusing
Where do community health nurses work? What are the values and beliefs of community health nurses? What do community health nurses do?
Take a few moments to write your answers to these questions in your course notes. There are no incorrect responses; just list your ideas.
You may wish to consult the website at www.chnac.ca to determine how similar or different your ideas are to those outlined by the Community Health Nurses Association of Canada (2003).
The Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice (2003) are also found as an Appendix in the Stamler and Yiu (2012) text. You will be directed to consult these standards of practice often as you work through this course.
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Practicing
Activity 1: Who is the Community Health Nurse?
List the major differences between the CARNA Standards of Practice (2013) located at Practice Standards for Regulated Members with CNA Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses
http://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Standards/PracticeStandards_CNA_Ethics_2008.pdf
and the Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice (2011) located at http://www.chnc.ca/documents/CHNC-ProfessionalPracticeModel-EN/index.html
Discuss one example of how nursing practice might differ depending on which standards are being utilized to guide nursing practice. If you like, record your thoughts in your course notes, or post your ideas to the Unit 1 Conference. Feel free to read the postings of other learners and engage in discussion with your peers who have posted their ideas to the Conference.
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Activity 2: Who is the client or recipient of care and what are the common settings of community health nursing practice?
Flash is required for this activity. Flash Player can be downloaded for free from www.adobe.com.
Try the flash cards exercise by clicking here.
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Activity 3: How is community health nursing affected by societal and health care trends?
Beyond consulting the course texts, you might find the following websites of interest:
http://www.von.ca/en/about/history.aspx Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada.
www.capnm.ca/core_competencies¬_standards_print.doc The Canadian Association for Parish Nursing Ministry
http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/en/ World Health Organization.
Test your knowledge of community health nursing history by completing the following statements. To see the answer, drag your mouse (hold the left button down as you move the mouse) over the blank space in the sentence between the arrows.
1) The best known, early community health nurses, called district or visiting nurses were the -> Victorian Order of Nurses (VON)<-, founded in 1897.
2) In 1948 the federal government, through a National Grant Program, matched provincial spending for designated health programs dollar for dollar. By 1957 the -> Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act <- was passed, and in 1968 the -> Medical Care Insurance Act<- made publicly funded medical care available to all Canadians. The emergence of publicly funded health care brought dramatic changes to the roles of district or visiting nurses.
3) Through 1950 to 1970, hospitals were built in abundance however, by the early 1970’s, it was becoming evident that increasing hospital costs would not be sustainable. The 1974, the -> Lalonde Report <- presented the first vision for health promotion services.
4) A landmark document entitled the -> Declaration of Alma Ata (WHO) <- arose from an International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978.
5) As diagnostic and hospital costs continued to increase, extra-billing by physicians and user fees by provincial institutions posed a serious threat to Medicare. The -> Canada Health Act <- was passed in April 1984 and provided the federal government with the legal authority to penalize provinces that permitted practices such as extra-billing for insured services.
6) The Epp (1986) framework, entitled -> Achieving Health for All: A Framework for Health Promotion <- expanded on Lalonde’s work and formed the basis for the -> Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) <-.
7) More recent documents such as Hamilton and Bhatti’s (1996) -> Population Health Promotion Model <- have clearly influenced today’s community health nursing as evidenced by the Community Health Nursing Practice Model (2003).
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Activity 4: Do Community Health Nurses face different ethical issues?
In your course notes provide definitions for the following ethical principles. Drag your mouse below the term, between the arrows, to see the suggested response:
Beneficence
->Requires that potential benefits to individuals and to society be maximized, and that potential harms be minimized” (Coughlin, Soskolne, & Goodman [1997] as cited in Vollman et. al., 2004, p.107).<-
Nonmaleficence
->“Requires that harmful acts not be committed – Primum non nocere – first, do no harm” (Vollman et. al., 2004, p.107).<-
Justice
->“Requires the equitable distribution of potential benefits and burdens” (Vollman et.al., 2004, p. 107).<-
Autonomy
->“Is focused on the right of self-determination that grants importance to individual freedom” (Vollman et. al., 2004, p. 108).<-
Do you believe the nurse-client relationship is different for nurses who work in hospitals and for those who work in the community? Write your response with brief rationale in your course notes.
The following CARNA website may assist you in answering the preceding question and should be of interest to you. Go to Professional Boundaries for Registered Nurses: Guidelines for the Nurse-Client Relationship (May 2011) athttp://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Guidelines/RN_ProfessionalBoundaries_May2011.pdf
You might also find the following article by Jos, Perlmutteer, and Marshall (2003) Substance abuse during pregnancy: Clinical and public health approaches a stimulus for further thinking in relation to community health nursing practice.
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Reflecting
You likely will have noticed in your readings that nurses working in community settings do not all share the same title. Do you believe that there is a difference between community health nurses and public health nurses? If so, in what ways do you believe that they are different? You may choose to write your response in your course notes or initiate a discussion with your fellow learners in the Unit 1 Conference.
Drag your mouse between the arrows to see a hint: ->
Cradduck (2000) states,
Community health nursing is an art and a science that synthesizes knowledge from the public health sciences and professional nursing theories. Its goal is to promote and preserve the health of populations, and it is directed to communities, groups, families, and individuals across the lifespan, in a continuous rather than episodic process…
The terms community health nurse and public health nurse are used synonymously in many jurisdictions. [In this course] the terms will used interchangeably; whichever term is used, it refers to a nurse whose practice focuses on health promotion, illness and injury prevention, and community development, and who uses Primary Health Care as the vehicle for practice. (p. 354)
<-
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References
College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. (2011). Professional boundaries for Registered Nurses: Guidelines for the nurse-client relationship. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Guidelines/RN_ProfessionalBoundaries_May2011.pdf
College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Standards/PracticeStandards_CNA_Ethics_2008.pdf
Community Health Nurses Association of Canada. (2011). Community health nursing standards of practice. Retrieved May 02, 2005 fromhttp://www.chnc.ca/documents/CHNC-ProfessionalPracticeModel-EN/index.html
Cradduck, G. R. (2000). Primary health care practice. In M. J. Stewart (Ed.), Community nursing: Promotion Canadians’ health (pp. 352-369). Toronto : Saunders.
Hamilton, N., & Bhatti, T. (1996). Population health promotion: An integrated model of population health and health promotion. Retrieved from Public Health Agency of Canada Web site: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/php-psp/index-eng.php
Health Canada – Health Care System – Health and Welfare Canada (1986). Achieving health for all: A framework for health promotion. Retrieved November 19, 2007 from Health Canada Web site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/pubs/system-regime/1986-frame-plan-promotion/index_e.html
Parliament of Canada. (2005). The Canada Health Act : Overview and Options. Retrieved September 3, 2015, from fromhttp://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/944-e.pdf
Jos, P. H., Perlmutteer, M., & Marshall, M. H. (2003). Substance abuse during pregnancy: Clinical and public health approaches[Electronic Version]. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 31(3), 340-350.
Lalonde, M. (1974). A new perspective on the health of Canadians: A working document. Retrieved May 03, 2005 from Public Health Agency of Canada Web site: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/pube-pubf/perintrod-eng.php
Public Health Agency of Canada. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion: An international conference on health promotion.Retrieved May 03, 2005 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/docs/charter-chartre/index-eng.php
Stamler, L. L., & Yiu. L. (Eds.). (2012). Community health nursing: A Canadian perspective (3nd ed.). Toronto: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
The Canadian Association for Parish Nursing Ministry. (2004). Standards of practice parish nursing ministry. Retrieved May 02, 2005 from www.capnm.ca/core_competencies¬_standards_print.doc
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada. (n.d.). A century of caring. Retrieved September 7, 2010 from http://www.von.ca/about/history.aspx
Vollman, A. R., Anderson, E. T., & McFarlane, J. (2012). Canadian community as partner: Theory and practice in nursing (3nd ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
World Health Organization. (1978). International conference on primary health care. Retrieved May 03, 2005 fromhttp://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf
World Health Organization. (2005). Retrieved July 10, 2005 from http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/en/
Section 1: Basic Concepts of Community Health Nursing
Unit 2: Theoretical Foundations
Fundamental to engaging in community health nursing is the capacity to incorporate the concepts of population health, primary health care and health promotion into one’s practice. Unit 2 is designed to facilitate analysis, understanding and development of meaningful ways to speak about concepts that are foundational to the role of the community health nurse.
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Learning Outcomes
By completing this unit, you will be able to
• articulate meanings of health, primary health care, health promotion, and population health.
• illustrate the associations and differences among health promotion, primary health care and population health.
• discuss the determinants of health.
• provide examples illustrating the principles of primary health care and the strategies of health promotion.
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Focusing
Consider the varying definition of health in a medical model versus a systems/health promotion model?

You may wish to write your response in your course notes or post your ideas to the Unit 2 Conference for discussion with your fellow students.
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Practicing
Activity 1: What is Health?
Using the search engine Google and the search term ‘definition+health’ will yield literally millions of related websites. A somewhat overwhelming result if one is seeking a succinct definition! Perhaps as Young and Wharf Higgins (2008) point out, defining health is not as important as determining “what it means to speak of health in a particular way” (p. 80).
Read about ‘health’ in the course texts and if you wish consult the following websites to determine elements that are common to discussions of health:
World Health Organization definition of health located at http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/
Statistics Canada’s definition of health status located at http://www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/definitions/health.htm
Jonas (2003) offers a further view of health located at http://www.americanhealthandhealing.com/Pages/JONASchap102.html
Make a list in your course notes of the elements that appear in more than one of these discussions on health and develop a brief description of health means to you.
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Activity 2: What is Primary Health Care?
Read about primary health care (PHC) in the course texts and the CARNA (2008) document located athttp://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Guidelines/PrimaryHealthCare_Sep2008.pdf
Based on your readings, complete the following table. Printable version here (in Microsoft Word Doc format).
PHC Principles Example of Principle in Action Role of CHN
1.

2.

3. Health Promotion Prenatal program Develop & deliver program
4.

5.

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Activity 3: What is Health Promotion?
Health promotion is clearly one of the principles of primary health care, but what does it mean to use a community health promotion approach?
Consult the course texts and the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/docs/charter-chartre/pdf/charter.pdf to answer the following questions. You may wish to make notes in your course notes.
1. What is the major difference between a behavioral and a socio-environmental approach to health promotion?
2. List the strategies of health promotion as outlined in the Ottawa Charter and provide an example of each of the strategies.
3. Explain in your own words the meaning of health determinants.
If you feel that you do not have a basic understanding of health promotion and would like to engage in further work, the Ontario Health Promotion Resource System offers an online health promotion course located at http://www.ohprs.ca/hp101/main.htm
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Activity 4: What is Population Health Promotion?
Consult the course texts, the following websites and the Butterfield article in completing the following activities in relation to population health promotion. You may wish to write your ideas in your course notes.
Public Health Agency of Canada located at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
Hamilton and Bhatti (1996) Population Health Promotion Model located http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca (use web site search tool to find article).
Community Health Nurses Association of Canada located at http://www.chnc.ca
Butterfield (2002) Upstream reflections on environmental health: An abbreviated history and framework for action
1. Explain in your on words what is meant by ‘upstream thinking’ versus ‘downstream thinking’.
2. A mother arrives at the community health clinic where you work as a registered nurse to have her child immunized. As she enters your clinic room she mentions that she noticed a display on the wall referring to population health promotion and questions you as to what that means. How would you respond? Consider posting your response to the Unit 2 Conference for discussion with fellow students.
3. Compare the Hamilton and Bhatti (1996) Population Health Promotion Model to the Community Health Nurses Association of Canada (2003) Community Health Nursing Practice Model. What would you state is the most significant difference between the two? Consider posting your answer to the Unit 2 Conference for discussion.
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Virtual Preceptorship
Assignment 3: Application Exercise 1 – From Theory to Practice
This is the first of the three application exercises in this course. Please spend some time working through this exercise as it should provide you with a chance to utilize the theory you have learned in a practical way that you will take with you into your practice as a community health nurse.
NOTE: To complete this portion of Assignment 3 valued at 15% of your final grade, you need to complete Application Exercise 1 and then submit your work to your tutor.
Please review the Assessment page of the course before you submit your work to your tutor so that you are aware of how your work will be evaluated. Your tutor will be marking your assignment to see if you have summarized the key findings you discovered in completing the application exercise. Your work will achieve the maximum value/grade if it is succinct and insightful and clearly shows how you have applied the theory learned to a practical situation.
Integrating the Concepts of Population Health, Primary Health Care and Health Promotion
Hopefully, what you have learned in Units 1 and 2 has given you a beginning theoretical foundation and practical tools to use in the role of community health nurse. This application exercise is designed to assist you to use what you have learned in applying the concepts of population health, primary health care and health promotion.
You are the community health nurse in the following case study and your objective is to convince the manager of your community health unit to grant you dedicated nursing time to work with this community beyond your day-to-day community health nursing practice routine of working with families in immunization clinics and home visits.
First – read this short case study:
You are a community health nurse employed in a rural Alberta health unit. In your district, the unemployment rate is over 20%, and the incidence of small grocery store theft has increased markedly during the past year. During routine infant and preschool immunization clinics and home visits you have noted signs of fatigue, anemia, and susceptibility to respiratory infections in family members of all ages. In addition you have noticed that many of the parents that you see in their homes seem to be smoking more. During clinic and home visits, many parents express concern about the adequacy of the diet that they are able to provide, and say that the funding they receive from Social Services is insufficient to meet their families’ basic food needs. The largest urban centre where large discount food stores are available is a four-hour-drive away. Most families in the district do their grocery shopping at the local general stores, where prices are higher. Many of these families have large debts. The owners of these stores are unable to extend the credit lines of many of their customers much further, although they are sympathetic to the overall situation. The general tone within the district towards the employment and economic situation is pessimistic, although many parents do comment during clinic and home visits that they are still waiting for things to “turn around.”
Recently a small group of farmers and local businessmen expressed interest in developing a food bank, although no one has any experience in organizing one. The only condition that they have placed on their offer is that “needy families become directly involved in helping themselves and each other, and nobody just gets a free handout.” The provincial nutritionist, a good friend of yours, has indicated her support and is willing to be involved in consultation and teaching. (Adapted from Athabasca University NURS 436, 2000)
Second – Prepare one of the following for submission to your unit manager.
1. Develop a PowerPoint presentation – Using data supplied in the case study indicate how you, the community health nurse, would work with this community integrating the concepts of population health promotion, primary health care and health promotion. Offer to share your presentation with someone or a group in your network.
2. Develop a written proposal – Using data supplied in the case study outline how you, the community health nurse, would work with this community integrating the concepts of population health promotion, primary health care and health promotion. Offer to discuss your proposal with someone or a group in your network.
Submit your PowerPoint presentation or your written proposal to your tutor for marking via the Assignment Dropbox on the home page. (limit of 5 pages or 20 power point slides (excluding title and reference pages).
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Reflecting
Describe in your own words the difference between population health promotion, primary health care and primary care. You may find it beneficial to write your ideas in your course notes.
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References
Butterfield, P.G. (2002). Upstream reflections on environmental health: An abbreviated history and framework for action [Electronic version]. ANS, 25(1), 32-50.
College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. (2008, September). Primary health care. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nurses.ab.ca/content/dam/carna/pdfs/DocumentList/Guidelines/PrimaryHealthCare_Sep2008.pdf
Community Health Nurses Association of Canada. (2011). Community health nursing standards of practice. Retrieved http://www.chnc.ca
Hamilton, N., & Bhatti, T. (1996, February). Population health promotion: An integrated model of population health and health promotion.Retrieved May 31, 2005, from Public Health Agency of Canada Web site: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Jonas, S. (2003). Talking about health and wellness with patients: Integrating health promotion and disease prevention in your practice.Retrieved May 31, 2005 from http://www.americanhealthandhealing.com/Pages/JONASchap102.html
Ontario Health Promotion Resource System. (n.d.). HP-101 Health promotion on-line course. Retrieved on September 3 fromhttp://www.ohprs.ca/hp101/about_ohprs.htm

Public Health Agency of Canada. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion: An international conference on health promotion. Retrieved May 03, 2005 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2002). What is the population health approach? Retrieved May 31, 2005 from
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Health status, well-being and satisfaction. Retrieved May 31, 2005 fromhttp://www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/definitions/health.htm
World Health Organization: Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. Retrieved November 19, 2007 fromhttp://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/
Young, L. E., & Wharf Higgins, J. (2008).Concepts of health. In L. L. Stamler & L. Yui (Eds.). Community health nursing: A Canadian perspective (2nd ed.). (pp. 80 – 92). Toronto : Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Section 1: Basic Concepts of Community Health Nursing
Unit 3: Epidemiology
Community health nursing practice includes the assessment of patterns and trends of health and illness in the community. Unit 3 is designed to facilitate understanding and application of epidemiology concepts, while learning how data about health and illness patterns are generated and used by community health nurses.
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Learning Outcomes
By completing this unit, you will be able to:
• interpret and apply basic epidemiologic measures of community health.
• apply principles of epidemiology to community health nursing practice.
• explain how common epidemiology research study designs are utilized in community health nursing.
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Focusing
Examine the Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice (2011) located at http://www.chnc.ca/documents/CHNC-ProfessionalPracticeModel-EN/index.html and list in your course notes the epidemiology principles and strategies that community health nurses are expected to incorporate into their practice. Ask yourself are these concepts that you are familiar with? Do you utilize these concepts in your current nursing practice, if so briefly describe how.
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Practicing
Beyond consulting your course texts you might find the following Websites of interest as you complete the following learning activities.
http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec19061/index.htm (Songer, T., 2005, March)
http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec19071/index.htm (Songer, T., 2005, March)
http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/le


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