1.What information about the influences of gonadal hormones on human brain and behaviour is presently able to inform the debate about the medical treatment of individuals with ambiguous genitalia, according to Melissa Hines in “Engendering the Brain” from her book Brain gender?
a. In cases where chromosomal and hormonal information conflict, chromosomes should not guide sex assignment as current information about the influences of gonadal hormones on human brain and behaviour suggests that hormones play the greater role in physical and psychological development
b. information about the influences of gonadal hormones on human brain and behaviour from other cultures suggests that the capacity of the United States and Western Europe to accommodate a category of people who are intersex should be extended by not assigning an intersex child as either a girl or a boy
c. information about the differences in the male and female brain identify neural characteristics that predispose a person to greater success in one sex versus the other, identifying and preventing the causes of poor outcomes in sex assignment
d. information about the influences of gonadal hormones on human brain and behaviour from those intersex individuals who have grown up without sex assignment or surgery provide a basis for evaluating whether or not these options are viable for intersex individuals in Western cultures
2. What does Melissa Hines decide on the question of male hormones making men aggressive and limiting their ability to nurture?
a. The link between testosterone and behaviour is large compared to the influence of social environment, and the research is very conclusive; male hormones have a determining influence on behaviour.
b. The link between testosterone and behaviour is small compared to the social environment, but the research is conclusive: the male hormone androgen has an absolute determining influence on behaviour.
c. Research results are completely conclusive; questionnaire responses translate into an increase in actual aggressive behaviour.
d. The link between testosterone and behaviour is small compared to the influence of social environment, and the research is inconclusive; male hormones may have some influence on behaviour, but they are not deterministic.
3. What distinguishes popular magazines like Cosmopolitan from the scientific literature in their framing presentation of sociobiological arguments about the differences between men and women, according to Amy Hasinoff in her article ‘It’s sociobiology, hon! Genetic gender determinism in Cosmopolitan Magazine’ (2009)?
a. Popular magazines like Cosmopolitan misrepresent sociobiological arguments, giving false accounts of the research findings, confounding variables or spreading alternative explanations to the proper ones offered in the scientific literature of sociobiology.
b. Popular magazines like Cosmopolitan present sociobiological arguments in a way that ties them to a self-help rhetoric that encourages women to see their problems as inevitable and solve them on their own.
c. Popular magazines like Cosmopolitan are less genetically determinist and more cautiously worded in their presentation of sociobiological arguments than the scientific literature on sociobiology.
d. Popular magazines like Cosmopolitan cannot be distinguished from the scientific literature as they get all their sociobiological arguments from the academic papers, which they generally represent accurately.